Indian Scientific Literature in
Science Citation Index: A Report

Aparna Basu, Ritu Aggarwal

National Institute of Science, Technology & Development Studies
K.S. Krishnan Marg, Pusa Gate, New Delhi - 110 012
Modified by the Editor

ABSTRACT

Depicts the coverage of Indian scientific literature by Science Citation Index database during the years 1990, 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999. Shows percentage-wise distribution of papers according to disciplines, states, and sectors. Also highlights features of institutional output according to disciplines and India's collaboration scenario with foreign countries.

KEYWORDS: India, Scientific literature, Science Citation Index, Collaboration.

STATISTICAL TRENDS IN SCIENTIFIC PAPERS

The figures given in this report are from an ongoing bibliometric study of Indian science based on all 57,123 papers indexed in the Science Citation Index (SCI) in 1990, 1994, 1997, 1998 and 1999. The SCI very selectively indexes the bibliographic details of papers published all over the world, in three to four thousand international mainstream journals in science every year. It also subsequently records the citations received by these papers. The objective of present study is to examine trends in the output of Indian scientific papers at the national, state, sectoral and institutional levels, and the nature of collaboration patterns in the 1990's. A search with `INDIA' in the address field was used to identify papers with at least one author from India. These are then treated as the scientific output from India. Clearly this study is only partial as there are a very large number of Indian journals numbering more than six hundred not indexed in SCI.

In the 1980's there had been an apparent fall in the number of Indian papers in SCI. Although some have interpreted this as a decline in Indian science, in reality, this was only an effect of the reduced coverage of Indian journals in SCI between 1970 to the mid-1980's, and not due to any real decline in productivity. The number of Indian journals indexed in SCI fell from about 40 at the end of the 1970's to 10-11 in 1986, and remained constant thereafter. The deletion of these journals, containing largely Indian papers, caused a significant reduction in the apparent Indian output as recorded in SCI. The number of papers from India in other international journals has steadily increased [1].

In the present study, we find that the output and the average impact factor of Indian papers has increased in the 1990's (Table 1), and that the increase in impact has been statistically significant for a sample of data [2].

Table 1 portrays the scenario of Indian contributions within the canvass of Science Citation Index (SCI). It can be seen that the coverage of world literature by SCI is increasing over the years commensurate with the coverage of world journals. The coverage of papers increased from 590, 841 in 1990 to 785,222 in 1999, and of world journals increased from 3,192 in 1990 to 3,633 in 1999. In terms of the number of Indian papers, the coverage shows an increase from 10,103 papers in 1990 to 12,521 papers in 1999. On the other hand, percentage-wise, the coverage of Indian literature is diminishing. It came down from 1.71 per cent in 1990 to 1.48 per cent in 1997, thereafter slightly increased to 1.59 per cent in 1999. SCI covers an incredibly low number of Indian journals, less than a dozen (10 during 1997 to 1999), out of some 600. Hence, the negligibly small coverage of Indian papers published in Indian journals ranged from 1191 in 1997 to 1513 in 1999. The coverage of Indian journals vis--vis world journals, however, has declined from 0.9 percent in 1990 to 0.5 per cent in 1999.

The journal quality is used as an indicator of the quality of papers, and no attempt has been made to determine the actual citations received by the papers. We have, however, indicated the expected citations vs. the observed citations for different disciplines. The terms used, e.g., impact factor, expected and observed citations are defined in the next section. Impact factor values have been taken from the Journal Citation Reports [3].

The fields of science have been demarcated by classifying journals into major disciplinary groups. Indian output in any discipline is then obtained by counting the number of Indian papers in them (Table 2). Due to the inherent disciplinary spread and overlap in journal contents, some misclassification of papers may have resulted from this. Classification of data using other classification schemes are possible and may lead to slightly different figures. Average impact factor of Indian papers at the level of the disciplines has been indicated. As there is a variation in the citation practices (and therefore of the impact factors) in different disciplines, a direct comparison of the impact of papers in different disciplines is often not desirable. For example, the impact factors of journals and papers in the life sciences are much higher than in mathematics all over the world.

Institutional output in fourteen different disciplines for the five years has been shown in rank order of output for 1999 (Table 3). All institutes, which cumulatively contribute up to 80% of the output in any discipline, have been included in the Table.

# We note that the extent of institutional collaboration does not vary significantly between disciplines.

# There are a large number of sporadic producers in every discipline.

# The concentration of output varies considerably between disciplines, the productivity being more concentrated in the major institutes in the case of physics (col.7). Only for physics this value is lower than the theoretical norm provided by the 80-20 Rule, which predicts that about 20% of institutes would be expected to produce 80% of the papers.

The state-wise distribution of papers in terms of percentage is given in Table 4. Sectoral output and impact have been determined by classifying institutions into appropriate sectors, e.g., government, academic, etc. [4] and aggregating their output and impact (Table 5).

The medical, engineering and agricultural sectors have been shown separately. Engineering Sector combines output from IIT's & engineering & technological institutes; Medical Sector combine output from ICMR, MHFW, hospitals & medical colleges; and Agricultural Sector combine output from ICAR, agriculture universities, agricultural deemed universities, agricultural colleges & state agricultural units

Foreign collaboration has been determined by the number of papers co-authored with scientists from different countries. The countries with which India has collaborations have been alphabetically listed in Table 6. Again, due to several papers with authors from more than one country the total number of links exceeds the number of papers.

DEFINITIONS

The impact factor of a journal in a given year is measured by the ratio of the number of times the citable items published in the journal during the two preceding years are cited in all journals covered by SCI database in the given year, to the sum of citable items published by the journal in the same period. The journal impact gives the Expected Citations to be received by a paper contained in it. The actual citations received by a paper, or Observed Impact, may differ from this.

REFERENCES

1. Basu A. Are Indian scientists losing in the world publishing race? A refutation, In Nagpaul PS et al ,eds. Emerging Trends in Scientometrics. New Delhi: Allied Publisher, 1999.

2 Basu A. Science publication indicators for India: questions of interpretation. Scientometrics 1999, 44, 347-360.

3 Journal Citation Reports, Philadelphia, Pa: Institute for Scientific Information.

4 Directory of R&D Institutions. New Delhi: Department of Science &Technology, Govt. of India, 1999.

Table 1: Science Citation Index: Selected Figures for India

Science Citation Index   

1990  

1994  

1997  

1998  

1999

World Papers in SCI

590841 

681545 

745819 

770591 

785222

Indian Papers in SCI  

10103  

11314  

11067  

12128  

12521

Percentage  

1.71  

1.66  

1.48  

1.57  

1.59

Average Impact Factor  

1.22  

1.36  

1.39  

1.58  

1.52

Papers in Indian Journals  

1413  

1383  

1191  

1299  

1513

Percentage of Indian SCI Papers in
Indian Journals  

14.0  

12.2  

10.8  

10.7  

12.0

Source Journals for SCI  

3192  

3383  

3453  

3606  

3633

Journals Used by Indian Institutions 

1527  

1706  

1664  

1799  

1843

Percentage of World Journals Used 

47.8  

50.4  

48.2  

49.9  

50.7

Indian Journals  

13  

13  

10  

10  

10

Indian Journals as Percentage of Journals Used   

0.9  

0.8  

0.6  

0.6  

0.5

International Collaboration
(Co-authored Papers)  

1040  

1575  

1743  

2126  

2251

As a Percentage of Total Papers  

10.3  

13.9  

15.7  

17.5  

18.0

Collaborating Countries  

69  

92  

94  

99  

112

Average Impact Factor of Collaborative Papers 

1.81  

1.96  

2.11  

2.24  

2.15

Percentage Gain in Impact Factor due to International Collaboration  

4.9  

6.1  

8.2  

7.3  

7.5

Inter Sectoral Collaboration  

948  

1396  

1601  

1791  

1972

Inter State collaboration  

523  

804  

879  

1029  

1113

Inter-Institutional Collaboration  

1219  

1707  

1958  

2161  

2403

As a percentage of Total Papers  

12.1  

15.1  

17.7  

17.8  

19.2

Impact Factor of Institutional
Co-authored Papers 

1.31  

1.33  

1.39  

1.48  

1.50

Table 2: Discipline-wise Distribution

Disciplines Percentage of Papers from India Average Impact Factors

1990  

1994  

1997  

1998  

1999  

1994  

1997  

1998  

1999

Mathematics  

1.5  

1.5  

1.7  

1.6  

1.8  

0.53  

0.49  

0.55  

0.58

Physics  

22.6  

22.6  

23.7  

22.9  

22.8  

1.56  

1.57  

1.58  

1.73

Chemistry  

23.2  

21.8  

19.9  

21.7  

20.5  

1.27  

1.19  

1.20  

1.25

Biology  

5.5  

4.9  

4.3  

5.5  

4.2  

1.52  

1.29  

3.97  

1.56

Earth & Space Sciences  

2.2  

2.8  

2.5  

2.1  

2.3  

1.01  

1.23  

1.41  

1.43

Agriculture  

4.4  

2.8  

3.0  

3.0  

3.1  

0.68  

0.76  

0.82  

0.84

Clinical Medicine  

15.2  

15.2  

17.2  

15.8  

16.3  

1.95  

1.92  

1.90  

2.05

Biomedicine  

8.3  

9.3  

9.4  

9.4  

9.5  

1.97  

2.08  

2.34  

2.55

Engineering & Technology  

5.8  

6.8  

6.6  

6.7  

5.9  

0.59  

0.72  

0.77  

0.77

Computer Sciences  

0.6  

1.1  

1.1  

1.4  

1.1  

0.81  

0.80  

0.71  

0.86

Material Sciences  

3.8  

3.8  

4.5  

3.6  

4.9  

0.78  

0.71  

0.85  

0.88

Multidisciplinary Journals  

4.0  

4.8  

3.9  

4.3  

5.1  

0.39  

0.44  

0.67  

0.68

Social Sciences  

0.2  

0.3  

0.1  

0.2  

0.2  

0.55  

0.50  

1.06  

1.34

Environmental Sciences  

2.8  

2.2  

2.1  

1.9  

2.1  

1.00  

1.28  

1.79  

1.10

Unidentified  

0.0  

0.0  

0.0  

0.0  

0.3  

0.0  

0.0  

0.0  

0.16

Total Papers  

10103  

11314  

11067  

12128  

12521  

1.36  

1.40  

1.60  

1.50 

Table 3: Features of Institutional Output (Discipline-wise)

1  

2  

3  

4  

5  

6  

7

Discipline  

National Output
5 years

Institutional Output
5 years

Total Institutional / National Output

Total
Institutes

No. of Institutions Contributing a Single Paper
in 5 years

80% Contribution to Papers in '99 by (% of institutes)

All Disciplines  

57122  

68244  

1.2  

2888  

1305  

12.7

Mathematics  

922  

1061  

1.2  

202  

104  

25.6

Physics  

13106  

16348  

1.2  

772  

337  

16.9

Chemistry  

12204  

13938  

1.1  

698  

285  

24.0

Biology  

2772  

3166  

1.1  

447  

203  

45.2

Earth Sciences  

1353  

1664  

1.2  

212  

100  

37.0

Agriculture  

1842  

2100  

1.1  

339  

160  

44.4

Clinical Medicine 

9116  

11039  

1.2  

1145  

585  

24.5

Biomedical Res. 

5265  

5078  

1.2  

579  

247  

28.2

Engineering  

3639  

4610  

1.3  

516  

247  

28.1

Computer Sci  

611  

721  

1.2  

169  

97  

46.5

Material Science

2360  

2868  

1.2  

303  

142  

28.3

Environmental Sci

1255  

1522  

1.2  

415  

229  

36.2

Multidisciplinary Journals  

2360  

2974  

1.2  

516  

281  

45.4

Notes:

  1. The institutional output (col.3) is a total of papers contributed by each institute. Because of collaboration between institutes, it is usually higher than national output (col.2).

  2. The ratio of institutional output/national output (col.4) gives the extent of collaboration between institutes.

  3. The number of institutes publishing papers in the 5 years of the study is shown in col.5, while the figures in col. 6 show the number of sporadic producers.

  4. The last column shows the percentage of institutes that contribute 80% of the papers. This provides an idea of the extent of concentration of institutional productivity.

Table 4: State-wise Distribution

State

Percentage of Total

Average Impact Factor

1990

1994

1997

1998

1999

1990

1994

1997

1998

1999

Maharashtra

15.00

15.58

16.05

15.33

15.43

1.56

1.57

1.61

1.71

1.71

West Bengal

11.45

11.24

11.60

11.60

12.33

1.26

1.26

1.34

1.52

1.49

Delhi

10.40

10.74

11.04

11.66

11.39

1.32

1.54

1.52

1.93

1.70

Uttar Pradesh

14.46

12.29

11.13

11.30

10.79

1.02

1.18

1.25

1.32

1.38

Karnataka

8.97

10.44

10.82

10.32

10.74

1.27

1.47

1.48

1.76

1.88

Tamil Nadu

7.89

9.36

10.26

10.07

10.19

1.22

1.15

1.15

1.37

1.19

Andhra Pradesh

8.35

8.12

7.39

8.00

7.85

1.21

1.48

1.58

1.66

1.60

Kerala

2.81

2.78

3.46

3.03

3.23

0.96

1.12

1.11

1.12

1.30

Chandigarh

2.96

2.31

2.51

2.89

2.78

1.30

1.60

1.82

2.33

2.20

Gujarat

2.66

3.21

3.10

2.67

2.71

1.20

1.27

1.31

1.56

1.56

Madhya Pradesh

1.90

2.62

2.29

2.41

2.33

0.89

1.10

1.05

1.03

1.18

Orissa

1.60

1.83

2.18

2.17

1.95

1.20

1.34

1.30

1.28

1.25

Rajasthan

2.20

1.53

1.43

1.31

1.36

1.01

1.20

1.19

1.42

1.10

Punjab

1.67

1.41

1.03

1.45

1.34

0.86

0.94

1.15

1.42

1.09

Haryana

2.18

1.87

1.41

1.34

1.26

0.79

0.87

0.84

0.99

0.97

Assam

0.61

0.63

0.69

0.83

0.89

1.01

0.71

1.20

0.92

1.10

Bihar

1.15

0.98

0.74

0.72

0.83

0.80

0.98

0.75

1.11

1.26

Goa

0.66

0.65

0.57

0.46

0.58

1.20

1.05

1.15

2.26

1.05

Meghalaya

0.70

0.58

0.43

0.63

0.47

1.20

1.00

1.42

1.28

1.25

Himachal Pradesh

0.62

0.38

0.63

0.36

0.43

1.03

0.75

1.01

1.03

0.92

Jammu & Kashmir

0.76

0.56

0.45

0.48

0.36

1.33

0.88

3.01

2.17

1.41

Pondicherry

0.55

0.53

0.41

0.54

0.36

0.66

1.69

1.30

1.19

0.93

Manipur

0.27

0.17

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.79

0.60

0.98

2.71

0.83

Arunachal Pradesh

0.06

0.03

0.08

0.11

0.09

0.68

1.99

0.79

0.75

0.81

Tripura

0.04

0.07

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.55

0.59

3.16

0.85

0.87

Andaman & Nicobar Islands

 

0.04

0.07

0.10

0.07

 

0.69

0.46

0.62

0.77

Nagaland

   

0.03

 

0.01

   

2.78

 

0.48

Sikkim

 

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.01

 

0.52

0.58

1.21

0.61

Lakshadweep        

0.01

       

1.38

Mizoram

0.03

0.02

 

0.02

0.01

0.34

0.38

 

0.52

1.03

Total

10103

11314

11067

12128

12521

1.22

1.33

1.39

1.57

1.52

Table 5: Sector-wise Distribution

SECTORS

Percentage of Annual Papers

Average Impact Factor
90 94 97 98 99 90 94 97 98 99

GOVERNMENT SECTOR  

33.98  

35.77  

37.20  

37.49  

37.48  

1.40  

1.50  

1.55  

1.72  

1.70

MAJOR SCIENTIFIC AGENCIES  

27.89  

29.66  

31.04  

30.82  

31.39  

1.39  

1.46  

1.52  

1.69  

1.69

Dept. of Atomic Energy  

8.26  

9.17  

9.41  

9.76  

9.23  

1.56  

1.73  

1.83  

1.85  

1.83

Council of Scientific & Industrial Research

11.10  

11.35  

11.28  

10.78  

11.53  

1.27  

1.33  

1.40  

1.57  

1.58

Defence Research & Development Orgn  

1.08  

1.10  

1.11  

1.18  

0.95  

0.87  

0.91  

0.76  

0.91  

0.97

Dept. of Electronics  

0.04  

0.10  

0.09  

0.11  

0.14  

0.36  

0.54  

0.79  

0.85  

0.94

Ministry of Environment, Forest & Wildlife  

0.19  

0.26  

0.30  

0.29  

0.33  

0.67  

0.61  

0.67  

0.82  

0.80

Indian Council of Agricultural Research  

1.86  

1.34  

1.52  

1.66  

1.80  

0.72  

0.73  

0.80  

1.04  

0.89

Indian Council of Medical Research  

1.34  

1.33  

1.19  

1.25  

1.14  

2.27  

1.65  

1.34  

2.13  

1.70

Dept. of Biotechnology  

0.21  

0.47  

0.41  

0.43  

0.39  

2.25  

2.89  

3.08  

4.46  

3.16

Dept. of Science & Technology  

3.82  

4.54  

5.74  

5.37  

5.89  

1.52  

1.45  

1.58  

1.74  

2.04

Dept. of Scientific & Industrial Research  

0.00  

0.00  

0.00  

0.00  

0.01  

 

 

 

 

0.69

Dept. of Space  

0.95  

1.44  

1.48  

1.50  

1.43  

1.53  

1.19  

1.37  

1.58  

1.89

OTHER MINISTRIES/ DEPTS  

6.04  

6.02  

6.13  

6.57  

5.98  

1.44  

1.70  

1.68  

1.87  

1.76

Ministry of Health & Family Welfare  

4.25  

4.06  

4.21  

4.51  

4.14  

1.64  

2.07  

1.95  

2.32  

2.08

Miscellaneous Govt Depts  

0.04  

0.08  

0.04  

0.10  

0.11  

0.71  

0.39  

0.65  

2.33  

1.48

STATE SECTOR  

0.78  

0.80  

0.97  

0.83  

0.94  

1.25  

1.20  

0.88  

1.03  

1.59

ACADEMIC SECTOR  

45.48  

42.93  

39.80  

39.89  

39.91  

1.05  

1.18  

1.16  

1.38  

1.31

Universities  

36.91  

34.04  

30.89  

31.09  

30.43  

1.03  

1.13  

1.15  

1.37  

1.21

Deemed Universities  

4.74  

5.71  

5.58  

5.43  

5.50  

1.48  

1.60  

1.57  

1.82  

1.98

Colleges & Schools  

4.00  

3.17  

3.40  

3.44  

3.64  

0.78  

0.98  

0.95  

1.30  

1.03

Centres for Advanced Study  

0.00  

0.02  

0.01  

0.01  

0.39  

 

0.57  

0.55  

1.07  

2.58

Management Instt.  

0.04  

0.09  

0.04  

0.05  

0.07  

0.68  

2.20  

0.24  

0.57  

0.99

IIT's  

8.70  

9.22  

8.96  

9.17  

8.95  

1.12  

1.20  

1.08  

1.17  

1.25

Engg. & Tech. Institutes  

1.08  

1.07  

1.16  

1.47  

1.40  

0.88  

0.74  

0.59  

0.80  

0.89

Hospitals & Medical Colleges  

4.99  

3.87  

5.27  

4.23  

4.80  

1.70  

1.74  

2.17  

1.97  

2.06

INDUSTRIAL SECTOR  

2.55  

3.11  

3.39  

3.23  

3.00  

1.80  

1.56  

1.69  

1.77  

1.60

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTES  

0.78  

0.81  

0.72  

0.71  

0.62  

1.33  

1.22  

1.95  

1.83  

2.22

MISCELLANEOUS INSTITUTES  

0.39  

0.51  

0.70  

1.05  

1.04  

1.87  

1.98  

1.67  

2.99  

2.09

PRIVATE ADDRESSES  

0.11  

0.24  

0.13  

0.23  

0.18  

0.73  

2.78  

0.81  

1.92  

0.87

UNIDENTIFIED  

0.21  

0.23  

0.22  

0.20  

0.24  

4.17  

1.09  

1.67  

1.96  

1.82

TOTAL (Papers)  

10103  

11314  

11067  

12128  

12510  

1.24  

1.33  

1.39  

1.56  

1.52

ENGINEERING SECTOR  

9.78  

10.29  

10.12  

10.64  

10.34  

1.10  

1.15  

1.03  

1.12  

1.20

MEDICAL SECTOR  

10.58  

9.26  

10.67  

9.99  

10.08  

1.75  

1.87  

1.99  

2.14  

2.03

AGRICULTURE SECTOR  

5.12  

3.41  

3.43  

3.30  

3.70  

0.72  

0.75  

0.81  

1.08  

0.97

Table 6: Collaboration Scenario of India with Foreign Countries

Country

90

94

97

98

99

TOTAL

Country

90

94

97

98

99

TOTAL

Afghanistan

1

       

1

Lithuania    

1

2

 

3

Algeria  

1

 

1

2

4

Luxembourg  

1

   

3

4

Argentina

4

3

14

23

23

67

Macedonia    

1

1

1

3

Armenia  

3

4

6

 

13

Malawi    

1

3

4

8

Australia

31

59

51

82

81

304

Malaysia

1

7

10

27

70

115

Austria

5

14

12

10

14

55

Mali    

1

 

2

3

Bahrain

3

1

1

3

 

8

Malta      

2

1

3

Bangladesh

7

15

10

18

16

66

Mauritius  

1

 

3

1

5

Barbados        

1

1

Mexico

5

6

22

39

40

112

Belarus  

2

     

2

Monaco  

1

   

2

3

Belgium

11

18

31

36

39

135

Mongolia      

1

 

1

Benin    

1

   

1

Morocco  

2

1

 

2

5

Bermuda

1

       

1

Mozambique    

1

   

1

Botswana      

3

3

6

Myanmar    

1

 

2

3

Brazil

7

21

39

53

61

181

Nepal  

3

4

3

3

13

Brunei  

5

 

1

 

6

Netherlands

29

32

76

60

69

266

Bulgaria

7

7

31

29

34

108

New Zealand  

11

8

10

12

41

Cameroon      

1

1

2

Nigeria

11

10

3

5

2

31

Canada

74

122

108

90

99

493

Norway

4

7

6

12

9

38

Chile

3

8

6

7

16

40

Oman

1

3

1

3

1

9

China

19

22

49

72

75

237

Pakistan

3

4

1

3

3

14

Colombia  

6

10

19

20

55

Panama    

1

1

1

3

Congo  

2

     

2

Papua New Guinea

2

       

2

Costa Rica  

1

2

1

2

6

Peru      

1

1

2

Cote d' Ivoire    

3

 

2

5

Philippines

5

7

16

5

15

48

Croatia      

1

 

1

Poland

6

14

18

42

49

129

Cuba    

1

2

1

4

Portugal

1

 

3

9

3

16

Cyprus  

4

26

26

24

80

Romania

3

7

32

33

29

104

Czech Republic

4

5

8

13

13

43

Russian Federation

25

52

74

90

70

311

Denmark

7

9

25

21

28

90

Saudi Arabia

2

3

5

5

5

20

Ecuador      

1

5

6

Scotland

12

20

16

33

25

106

Egypt

3

7

9

12

6

37

Senegal        

1

1

Eritrea        

1

1

Seychelles        

1

1

Estonia        

1

1

Singapore

3

5

12

10

18

48

Ethiopia

2

3

2

 

4

11

Slovakia  

4

8

8

8

28

Finland

5

14

34

45

36

134

Slovenia  

1

1

5

4

11

France

52

109

178

233

215

787

South Africa

4

10

12

16

25

67

Gambia    

1

   

1

South Korea  

12

52

70

61

195

Georgia  

1

 

1

1

3

Spain

21

27

54

76

58

236

Germany

144

408

542

630

736

2460

Sri Lanka  

3

 

2

3

8

Ghana  

1

2

2

1

6

Sudan  

1

1

3

3

8

Greece

5

9

6

6

6

32

Suriname        

1

1

Guadeloupe    

1

   

1

Sweden

20

31

45

48

40

184

Guatemala        

2

2

Switzerland

37

32

70

81

62

282

Guinea Bissau        

1

1

Syrian Arab Republic

1

12

2

2

3

20

Honduras      

1

1

2

Taiwan

2

10

18

39

60

129

Hong Kong

3

2

12

14

10

41

Thailand

4

8

1

10

11

34

Hungary

14

15

31

47

44

151

Trinidad & Tobago      

2

1

3

Iceland    

1

 

1

2

Tunisia  

3

 

2

2

7

Indonesia

1

 

3

4

9

17

Turkey

2

3

 

6

3

14

Iran

3

2

9

9

6

29

United Arab Emirates  

7

5

4

1

17

Iraq

1

2

     

3

Uganda    

1

1

2

4

Ireland

4

21

16

14

19

74

Ukraine  

1

2

3

1

7

Israel

3

8

18

20

27

76

United Kngdom

119

170

185

200

206

880

Italy

52

85

108

137

134

516

United Republic of Tanzania  

2

1

 

1

4

Jamaica  

1

   

1

2

USA

441

611

704

883

856

3495

Japan

73

125

135

201

239

773

Uzbekistan  

4

4

5

3

16

Jordan

3

1

1

3

4

12

Venezuela    

2

3

5

10

Kazakhstan  

3

7

6

2

18

Vietnam

1

1

 

4

6

12

Kenya

1

6

2

7

7

23

Wales

9

7

10

18

22

66

Kuwait

4

 

3

1

9

17

Yemen  

1

   

2

3

Lebanon  

1

1

 

1

3

Yugoslavia

1

 

1

1

2

5

Lesotho  

1

     

1

Zambia

1

2

 

5

 

8

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

2

3

5

 

1

11

Zimbabwe

4

 

1

5

3

13

-----
The paper is a summary of the Report prepared under the National Mapping of Science Project, sponsored by NISSAT.

-------
Information Today & Tomorrow, Vol. 20, No. 4, December 2001, p.3-p.8, p.17, p.22
http://itt.nissat.tripod.com/itt0104/scirep.htm