News and Events

IT Application in LIS

The Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow (IIML) conducted a training programme on "Information Technology (IT) Application in Library & Information Services (LIS)" during April 10-12, 1996. Twenty-five senior level librarians and information managers from all over the country attended. The programme was inaugurated by Dr. J.L. Batra, Director, IIM, Lucknow, at the IIML Campus.

The programme was designed to equip the participants with adequate knowhow on :

- Developments in IT : current trends and future prospects;

- IT application in LIS;

- Legal aspects and strategies for adopting IT in LIS; and

- Impact of IT on human resource.

The training package developed by Dr. Roshan Raina, Programme Director was designed around the following themes :

The programme faculty, besides the Programme Director, included officers from IIML and IT industry. Computer sessions, hands-on sessions, with other IT products, demonstrations of IT products, and sessions on experience sharing were the other enriching components of the programme.

The programme, financially supported by NISSAT (DSIR), concluded with a valedictory session on April 12, 1996. Participants feedback reflected that the programme was a success.

Total Quality Management Programme in LIS

Encouraged with the success of the first of its kind training programme in the country on "Total Quality Management in Library & Information Services", the Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow conducted a similar programme during Febuary 14-16, 1996. Fifteen senior level librarians and information managers (LIMs) from all over the country attended the programme, which was inaugurated by Dr. J.L. Batra, Director, IIM, Lucknow, at the IIML Campus on February 14, 1996. The programme was sponsored by NISSAT (DSIR).

The programme was designed to equip the participants with adequate knowhow to :

i) Guage the requirements of their clients; i.e. the library users more accurately and precisely;

ii) Cater to the exact needs of such users; and

iii) Remain cost effective in every area of operation by doing things right the first time, everytime and all the time.

The training package developed by Prof. S. Chakraborty and Dr. Roshan Raina, Programme Directors was designed around the following themes:

Sessions on experience sharing, visits to IIML Library & Computer Centre and viewing of video films (on TQM and User Services) were the other enriching componments of the programme.

The programme, which was financially supported by NISSAT (DSIR), concluded with a valedictory session on Febuary 16, 1996. Participants provided the feedback on the programme, through a structured questionaire designed for the purpose as well as through a report presented in the valedictory function. Feedback reflected that the programme was a success.

Nomination on Aerospace Information Panel

Shri T.N. Prakash has been nominated as Co-ordinator of Aerospace Information Panel of Aeronautical Research and Development Board (ARDB), New Delhi for all information activities connected with aerospace information. The aerospace libraries, academic institutions,industries, etc., can contact him for the support and grants for any information activity which is of national interest.

Suggetions are welcome and request for ARDB Newsletter can be sent to:

Mr. T.N. Prakash
Co-ordinator, AIP
c/o. Aeronautical Development Agency
P.B.No. 1718, Vimanapura Post
Bangalore - 560017
Tel : 5267294 and 5273060
Fax : 91-080-5269493

Paperless Japanese Patent Office

The Japanese Patent Office (JPO) started paperless system in 1984 to computerise its paperwork and since then electronic applications have been filed in an efficient manner.

The paperless system designed to computerise an operation from filing applications to examination and distribution of patent information to the public consists of the following three subsystems :

Electronic Application and Administrative Processing System

All transactions ranging from acceptance of applications to examination and registration and publication of official gazettes are processed by the computerised paperless system. The first electronic filing of applications for patents and utility models in the world is featured by this system. The system accepted the first filing on December 1, 1990 and has paved the way for applicants to file applications electronically in online or batch (FD) mode or using the conventional paper form at their discretion.

At present online and FD filings account for a high 96%. In 1993, the JPO commissioned to service an online transmission system which enables applicants to receive online notifications at their own terminals.

Comprehensive Document Database System

This system supersedes the paper-based manual practice of obtaining domestic and foreign information. Comprehensive domestic and foreign information on computer, including official gazettes related to patents, utility models, designs and trademarks is stored by this system. The comprehensive Document Database holds 39 million documents and the JPO has been providing public use of the database since 1986.

Document Retrieval System

This system replaces the manual method for most prior art searches and enables a computer search to be conducted of patent documents, etc.

The paperless system uses the state-of-the-art computer technology and operates on a large scale. Ever since the system was started 10 years ago, it has been updated by the JPO.

Numerous technical problems arising from computerization such as formatting, communications, database construction, legal issues concerning the introduction of the online filing system and the associated application fee payment procedures, etc. were resolved. Apart from patents and utility models, which have been already computerised, the JPO is making efforts to complete the total paperless system covering designs, trademarks and appeals. The JPO is also working to ensure the system operates reliably, to improve the system and costs while monitoring current information technology trends. Based on its pioneering experience worldwide, the JPO advances international cooperation including strengthening its ties with USPTO and EPO for computer systems and patent information and providing technical assistance to developing countries.

— WISTA Intellectual Property May 1996

Technology Information Centre

The Technology Information Centre (TIC) is a service that has been launched by CII in collboration with the European Commission in December 1995. TIC is a unique service which provides information on commercially available environment-friendly technologies to industry. Initially, the sectors in which this service is available include drugs and pharmaceuticals, automotive components, dye and dye intermediates, pulp and paper mills, leather tanning, pesticides, textiles, chemicals, composites, food processing, world standards, patents. TIC services will be available to users through the existing network of CII offices spread across the country.

The information sources used by TIC are varied :

The service is available to users on request. You can approach any CII office with your query or send it to TIC by post/e-mail. Once they have all the details of your request they aim to respond within ten days. The charges for this service vary according to the nature of the information required.

For any further information on TIC please get in touch with:

Technology Information Centre
C/o Confederation of Indian Industry
23,26, Institutional Area, Lodi Road
New Delhi 110003
Fax : 91-11-4626149; Ph : 91-11-4633168
email : tic 1% cii @
Or : ciigen.cii @

— CII Communique 5(3), March 1996

New Copyright Agreement for the British Library

The Chief Executive of the British Library and the Chairman of the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) signed a new agreement on 27 April 1995. This heralds an era of improved relations between publishers and the Library.

Under the agreement, the British Library will pay copyright fees, via CLA and the other reproductive rights organisations, at rates set by publishers and authors. Intially, flat rates will be charged, set at the average fee, but a system will eventually be introduced which will charge the fee at a rate set by each publisher. The new agreement covers the provision of copies both by post and by fax, and opens the way for further discussion on electronic storage and delivery with individual publishers.

In pursuit of its strategies and in the light of both national and European legislative considerations, the Library is extending its policy of requiring certain groups of customers to use the copyright fee paid service for all their requests. This change follows legal advice the Library has received on this complex area of copyright law where national variations are significant. As from 1 October 1995 the Library will cease to provide royalty free photocopy services to all commercial organisations outside the European Union; cease to provide royalty free photocopy and fax services to commercial organizations in the following countries of the European Union - Belgium, France, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg and Portugal; and continue to provide only copyright fee paid services to US customers.

— UNISIST Newsletter 23(2), 1995

National Arid Zone Information Centre (NARZIC)

The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) Delhi has approved to establish a National Arid Zone Information Centre (NARZIC), the first of its kind in the country at Dr. Raheja Library, Central Arid Zone Research Institute, (CAZRI) Jodhpur.

Dr. A.S. Faroda, Director of the institute while introducing the centre briefed that the proposed centre will create various extensive databases on all aspects of `Arid Zone' research and will be linked up with various national and international networking systems. The proposed centre will establish good liaison with other similar international centres like ICRAF, FAO, AGRIS, ICRISAT, CABI, UNESCO, World Bank, Arizona University and SAARC countries,etc.

Dr. D.C. Ojha, Project Leader and Sr. Librarian of the institute informed that the centre is being established on the recommendations of an international conference held at CAZRI during 1989. He further briefed that the proposed centre will be equipped with the modern hardware and software gadgets required for the purpose. The centre in its first phase will utilise its existing resources including four regional stations located at Pali, Bikaner, Jaisalmer and Bhuj. The primary object of the centre would be to provide information support to the scientists engaged in field/farm research and to disseminate the information to the farmers for overall development of the arid zone agriculture.

The Library — Gateway to the Intellectual Commons

Providing access to information is what libraries are all about. In many respects, the library is a gateway to the intellectual commons. As a place to find information, to browse and to read, libraries play a vital role in intellectual and scholarly life.

Libraries also have special rights in the area of preservation. They are free to copy selected material in their collections to ensure that our documentary and cultural heritage survives for the benefit of future generations.

The important role of the library is reflected in the Australia's Copyright Act, 1968. Not only do people come to libraries to browse and to read, but libraries take their collections to the people, through lending and document supply. All of these things can be done without infringing copyright.

Just like everyone else, however, libraries cannot escape the massive changes to information technology currently sweeping the globe. In fact, most libraries are keen to embrace digital technology. After all, it can make the task of storing and delivering information cheaper and more efficient than ever before. But therein lies the problem.

Too much free access might very well swing the copyright balance to such an extent that copyright loses all value. Too little access, on the other hand, might leave the children of the online world without so much as a right to read. Somewhere in the middle, a new balance must be found which permits libraries to make reasonable use of digital technologies for preservation and access purposes, without undermining the value of the author's right to make a dollar from the online exploitation of his or her work. Striking a new balance will be a difficult task.

— National Library of Australia News, March 1996

Putting Stories Online - Whether Violation of Copyright

A copyright infringement suit has been filed by eight freelance journalists in federal circuit district court against four publishers and two database agencies alleging that the publishers have violated their copyrights by putting their stories into electronic formats without consulting or compensating them. The case entitled Tasini vs The New York Times Company threatens to curtail publisher's freedom as they enthusiastically expand into new electronic formats. The case could even set a precedent for copyright disputes over the reproduction of intellectual property on the Internet. According to the plaintiff, he had granted the newspapers a one-time print use of the articles, to which he retained the copyrights and he was appalled to learn that articles he had written for The New York Times and New York Newsday were available onlime.

The counsel for the plaintiff argues that the electronic version of a publication differs from the print in that its value endures beyond that of the original publication. The electronic publication is a different product, it is a different market. The defense counsel on the other hand counters that his clients' online or CD-ROM publications are no different substantively than bound volumes in library or microfilms. He claims that in the absence of LEXIS-NEXIS, reader would simply turn to microfilm or back issue. The online articles are only part of an unchanged electronic version of the original and his clients using them is legal under Section 201(c) of the Copyright Act.

The present suit has been filed with a view to establish principles and not to claim damages. No effort to calculate precisely how much the publishers might owe the writer has been made as yet. It is quite unclear as to how much money is at stake in the case. Casting himself as victim of corporate greed and confronting these multinational empires, the plaintiff says that it is very important to establish that in the electronic age, writers are not going to get ripped off.

— WISTA Intellectual Property February, 1996

Copyright of Software

As per the Indian Copyright Act, "Computer Program" means a set of instructions expressed in words, codes, schemes or any other form, including a machine readable medium, capable of causing computer to perform a particular task or achieve a particular result. National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM) has published a comprehensive booklet on the policy and procedures for copyright of software. Some questions and answers from this document are given below :

1.    Is there a possibility of divulging the trade secrets through deposit of source code?

The Copyright Office has procedures designed to protect trade secrets but once the Copyright is registered, the work is open to public inspection. For this reason, it is advisable, only to file a small extract of the computer program rather than the full program itself. It is important however to know that the part of the computer program which is not being filed would remain the trade secret of the owner and can be subject matter of a protection against any person who wrongfully obtains and utilizes the said program.

2.    In order to further ensure that the trade secrets are protected, is depositing of computer program in object code permissible?

Although the recent amendment (1994) in the Copyright Act enlarges the meaning of a computer program, it is still not very clear as to whether it includes both object code and source code. However, keeping in mind the proclaimed object of the amendment, presumably the benefit of the Copyright Act will be available to both. As per experts opinion, since it is easier to determine from source code whether the deposit represents the copyrightable material, deposit of object code may be possible, but registration presumably would be accepted pending assurance that the code does represent copyrightable material. Procedures for these do no exist at present with the Copyright Office.

3.    In some of the programms, the screens could be the most commercially significant aspect. Is it necessary to register the program screen separately from the underlying code?

Generally, all copyrightable expression embodied in a computer program, including screen displays, are protectable. However, unlike a computer program which is a literary work, screen displays are artistic works and cannot therefore be registered in the same application as that covering the computer program. A separate application giving graphic representations of all copyrightable elements of the screen display is necessary.

4.    What notice needs to be put on computer program copies to seek copyright protection?

When a work is published by authority of the copyright owner, a notice of copyright owner, a notice of copyright may be placed on publicly distributed copies. As per the Berne Convention for protection of literary and artistic works - to which India is signatory - use of copyright is optional. It is however, a good idea to incorporate a copyright notice.

— Intellectual Property Right, February 1996

Index Translationum on CD-ROM

The second revised and enlarged edition (1995) of the Index Translationum on CD-ROM has been updated with an additional 120,000 references, bringing the total to around 725,000 bibliographic citations of translated books in all fields from more than one hundred countries, recorded by UNESCO since 1979.

This disk edition replaces the international bibliography of translations which ceased to be published in 1989 (Vol. 39). It was prepared by the UNESCO Clearinghouse using data entered into the Index Translationum database by the Culture Sector of UNESCO. Searching can be done by author's name, words from the titles, country of edition and languages. Search interface, help services and user aids are trilingual (English, French and Spanish). It is updated each year. The disk can be used on any IBM PC or compatible with DOS 3.0 at least and 640 K RAM.

It is available for FF 890 or US$ 180 from all UNESCO sales agents or the UNESCO Publishing and Sales Division, 1, rue Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, France. A free demonstration diskette may be obtained from Mrs. Denise Pelissier, UNESCO Clearinghouse, 7, place de Fontenoy 75352 Paris 07 SP France. Tel: (33-1) Fax : (33 1)

— UNISIST Newsletter 23(2),1995